The history of the city



On Chinese maps from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Vladivostok is called Yongmingcheng (永明城 [Yǒngmíngchéng], “city of eternal light”). During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) it was visited by Chinese expeditions, and a relic of that time (a Chongning stela) is displayed in the local museum. The 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk defined the area as part of China under the Manchu Qing Dynasty. Later, as the Manchus banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria (including the Vladivostok region), it was only visited by shēnzéi (參賊, ginseng or sea cucumber thieves) who illegally entered the area seeking ginseng or sea cucumbers (ambiguous, since both words use the Chinese 參, shēn). From this comes the current Chinese name for the city, 海參崴 (Hǎishēnwǎi, “sea-cucumber cliffs”). A French ship which is believed to have visited the area around 1858 found several huts belonging to Chinese or Manchu fishermen. There is also the Udge,the Orochi,the Nanai, and the Mohe living in Vladivostok.

The history of the signing of this agreement — the plot for an adventure novel. We do not have streets named after count Ignatiev. But it was the streets of Beijing, street Chinese, Soulfunky… Svetlanskaya, Aleut, Boat, Admiral zavoiko, Kornilov, Arsenyev, Dezhnev.

Is there a lot of cities where street names are so closely connected with ships, naval and pioneers? It traces the history of development of the Russian people in the Asia-Pacific region.

During the summer of 1859 the governor-general of eastern Siberia, Nikolay N. Muravyov, visited the peninsula and bay (somewhat similar to the Bay of the Golden Horn in Constantinople) on the steam corvette Amerika. The peninsula was named Muravyov-Amursky in his honor. The first Europeans to visit the bay, later named the Golden Horn Bay, were the crews of the British warships HMS Winchester and HMS Barracouta in 1855.

On June 20, 1860 (July 2 Gregorian style) the military supply ship Manchur, under Captain-Lieutenant Alexey K. Shefner, called at Golden Horn Bay to found the outpost of Vladivostok. Warrant officer Nikolay Komarov, with 28 soldiers and two non-commissioned officers under his command, were brought from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur by ship to construct its first buildings. They pitched camp, selecting a site where the entrance to Golden Horn Bay was always visible.

In 1862, under the leadership of Yevgeny Burachyok, Vladivostok became an official port. To encourage foreign trade, it was designated a free port for imports. In 1864, the Southern Harbors command was moved to Vladivostok from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. A year later a shipbuilding yard was founded in the city, and the first settlers from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur began arriving. In 1871 the naval port, military governor’s residence, and main base of the Siberian Military Flotilla moved from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur to Vladivostok, and the Great Northern Telegraph Company connected Vladivostok to Nagasaki and Shanghai by underwater cable.

Vladivostok’s first street was Amerikanskaya Street, named for the corvette America in 1871. Two years later, it was renamed Svetlanskaya Streetnin honor of the frigate Svetlana on which Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia visited Vladivostok. At that time, it consisted of present Svetlanskaya Street from Amursky Bay to number 85. Its other parts were separate streets with names such as Portovaya, Afanasyevskaya, and Ekipazhnaya.

In 1878, 40 percent of the city’s over 4,000 residents were foreigners. This was reflected in street names such as Koreyskaya (Korean), Pekinskaya (Peking), and Kitayskaya (Chinese), whose present names are Pogranichnaya, Admirala Fokina, and Okeansky Avenue.

After the October Revolution of 1917, on December 31, Japanese, British and American cruisers entered Golden Horn Bay. In April 1918, the Japanese company Isido was attacked in Vladivostok. After this incident, the Japanese and British commands landed troops to protect their citizens. The Entente soon expanded its Siberian Intervention; Canada sent 4,000 troops, headquartered in the Pushkin Theatee with a barracks at Second River and Gornostai Bay.[1][2]

Bolshevik supporters conducted a partisan struggle in the city. From 1916 through 1922, Vladivostok’s population increased from 97,000 to 410,000 as opponents of the new regime (including the White Army) retreated to the east.

From 1920 to 1922, cultural refugees from Moscow and Saint Petersburg founded two conservatories, two theaters and several symphony orchestras and published art magazines. After the Bolshevik victory, most moved abroad and by 1926 Vladivostok had a population of 108,000.

On October 25, 1922 the last interventionist units left the city, and the Red Army assumed control. On November 15 the Far Eastern Republic, which had existed since 1920, became part of the RSFSR.

The Bolsheviks understood Vladivostok’s strategic importance, and during the 1920s and 1930s reconstruction of its port began. In the early 1930s direct air service to Moscow began, and in 1932 the city became the base of the Pacific Naval Fleet.

During the early 1920s, Far Eastern State University was established in Vladivostok; in the late 1930s, under Stalin, it was closed for twenty years. In 1925 the Pacific Scientific-Commercial Station, reorganized as the Pacific Scientific-Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (TINRO) in 1930, was established in the city. In 1932, the Far Eastern Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences was founded.

In 1926, Vladivostok’s first radio station began broadcasting. Three theaters and three cinemas were opened in the city in 1931. The Primorye Picture Gallery’s collection was assembled from 1929 to 1931. About 1,000 pictures were brought there from the Hermitage, the Russian Museum and the Tretyakovskaya Gallery.

The scope of this article is too narrow to tell all information about this City. Vladivostok is definitely place to visit,  to see the unique and unforgettable spirit of this City.

The scope of this article is too narrow to tell all information about this city. Vladivostok is definitely place to visit,  to see the unique and unforgettable spirit of this city.